It is a common disease, it affects 90% of the population over 35 years old. It affects the tissues that give support to the teeth. It is caused by bacteria, bad tooth alignment, tobacco, hormonal changes and general diseases such as diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis.
The bacteria that cause the disease live in the mouth and are located between the teeth forming what is called bacterial plaque. Over time it is accumulated in the gum and the mixture with saliva and food hardens and forms tartar. The bacteria in the plaque and the tartar produce toxins that irritate the gum when they are released and form periodontal pockets. If they are not treated they will continue to advance destroying the bone that holds the teeth, and eventually the teeth could even be lost because they could fall by themselves. The treatment of a disease like this consists of the elimination of the infection that produces it. Once the infection is controlled, the destructive process of the bone is stopped and that way the teeth can be kept as well as the healthy periodontal tissue. The treatment consists of:
- Tartrectomy or hygine: The elimination of tartar over the gum. Normally ultrasounds are used.
- Subgingival scaling and root planning: It consists of the elimination of tartar underneath the gum using manual curettes or ultrasounds, leaving the root surface smooth. This avoids the progress of the periodontal disease and it is usually done in several sessions.